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Question:
My boyfriend has onset diabeties...what do we need to do to get rid of it? Or he need to follow a certain diet? is there any medicine that he need to take? And how about hypertentions? To get his BP in normal what he need to do? is there any food that he is not allowed to eat or what is the best food for that? Many thanks!
Artimjo
Answer:
Thank you for your inquiry. You do not give the age of your boyfriend but I assume he is of an age where he has adult onset diabetes. Diabetes is a condition where there is too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. The food we eat is mostly changed into glucose and passed into the blood stream where it travels to the other parts of the body to give us energy. But the glucose has to be helped out of the bloodstream and into the body's cells by a hormone called insulin. If you have diabetes, either your pancreas isn't producing enough insulin or the insulin isn't working properly. The result is that glucose builds up in the bloodstream because it cannot enter the body's cells - and the cells in your body don't get the energy they need. There are 2 types of diabetes. People who get diabetes at an early age have insulin-dependent diabetes. The most common form of diabetes (85%) however is non-insulin dependent diabetes. It develops typically in people over 40 who are overweight and have a family history of diabetes. Diabetes can't be cured but serious long term complications are less likely to occur if the diabetes is well managed. He should: -Keep his blood glucose level as close to normal as possible by balancing food, exercise, and medication. (Some people are able to control their diabetes only with healthy eating and exercise. Others will need to take tablets or insulin injections as well). -Lose weight if he's overweight. This is the most important way for overweight people to control their diabetes but sensible weight loss is needed, not crash diets or skipping meals. -He should eat regular meals, with not too much food or too little at any one time, to help keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. -He should eat healthy food. With adult onset diabetes he doesn't need special diet foods - food for diabetes is good for the whole family. -He should eat mostly high fibre starchy foods such as wholemeal and wholegrain breads and cereals, brown rice, fruit and vegetables. -He should keep protein foods to small servings one-two meals a day, and use low fat versions, e.g., lean meat, chicken with the skin removed before cooking, low fat cheeses, and fish. If you cook for him (and I'm not saying you should!) try not to add fats or oils when cooking and if he cooks, advise him to do the same. -He should have only very small amounts of fats, oils, sugars, salt and alcohol (especially alcohol). -He should keep active. Exercise improves the circulation and uses energy which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood. -If he smokes he must stop immediately. Smoking narrows the blood vessels which increases the risk of circulation problems, heart attacks, strokes, and leg ulcers. -He will need to take special care of his feet because diabetes can cause circulation problems. He should regularly check for calluses, blisters, cracks, cuts, infections or bruises, and see his doctor if any concerns. -He should have his eyes checked regularly because it's all too easy for people with uncontrolled diabetes to get eye damage bad enough to go blind. Any blurring or worsening of vision, double vision, seeing dark spots, or feeling pressure or pain in the eyes should be reported immediately. Early treatment can reduce the risk of damage. -The doctor will have told him how often he should have blood tests. In general, people taking tablets should test glucose levels at least several days a week. Knowing blood glucose level helps to keep diabetes "balance" correct. Insulin and tablets can drop blood glucose too low if late for a meal, exercise more than usual, drink alcohol without food, take too much insulin or too many tablets, or if the body starts to need a lower dose. This is called a "hypo". The patient might feel weak, light headed, have double vision and pale sweaty skin, and feel confused or anxious or agitated - this is sometimes confused (by others) with the patient being drunk which can be dangerous if the patient ends up in police cells rather than hospital. He should take something sweet immediately, e.g., glucose tablets, jam, honey, sugar, soft drink, jelly beans, and follow this with a meal if this is due, or a snack. On a daily basis many diabetics feel well but diabetes can lead to long term damage if it is not controlled: -Stroke (blood vessels to the brain become blocked) -Heart attack (blood vessels to the heart become blocked) -Poor circulation to the feet which can sometimes lead to lack of sensitivity, numbness, ulcers and even gangrene -Blindness -Kidney failure -Nerve damage - leading to pain or numbness in the legs, diarrhea, incontinence, or male impotence. Hypertension is a different problem requiring individually prescribed treatment. The effects of hypertension on heart, eyes, and blood vessels are additive to those of diabetes therefore control of both is essential. Hope this helps. Best he sees his doctor for detailed explanations of how to adjust the particular diabetic medicine that he takes.
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