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 Survival Guide
The History of Moscow
The first reference to Moscow dates back to 1147 when Yuri Dolgoruky called upon the Prince of Novgorod-Seversky: "come to me, brother, to Moscow". Nine years later, in 1147, Prince Yuri Dolgorukov of Rostov ordered the construction of a wooden wall - which was to be rebuilt multiple times - to surround the emerging city. The city replaced Tver and became the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal during the reign of Ivan I. In 1480, Ivan III won a great victory against the Tatars and made Moscow the capital of the new Russian Empire that soon included all Russia and Siberia. Despite destruction by fires and Mongol and Tatar invasions, Moscow expanded until it became the national capital in the 16th century - when Ivan IV, Prince of Moscow, took the title "tsar". Peter the Great moved the capital to St.-Petersburg in 1712, and a consequent period of decline followed in Moscow. The city was burnt down again in 1812 during the war with Napoleon's France but was rebuilt and expanded rapidly as an industrial and communications center. After the 1917 Revolution Moscow again became the national capital in 1918 and has continued to grow in both size and influence, particularly since the end of WW2, to become the country's leading industrial, cultural and political center.

Ancient Times and Rise of Moscow (5th-15th Centuries)
Ivan the Terrible and the Times of Troubles (16th-17th Centuries) The Origin of Romanovy Dynasty (17th Century)
Reign of Peter the Great (Late 17th-18th Centuries)
Palace Revolutions and Catherine the Great (18th Century)
Russia in the 19th Century
October Revolution (1917)
Soviet Union (1920-50s)
From Thaw to Perestroika (1950-90s)
Present Times
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